IP Addressing & Subnetting #

IP Address , IP Addressing :-

An IP Address is a numeric identifier assigned to each Computer System. It identifies the location of the device in a network. Its a software address embedded in to a Network Interface Card ( NIC ).

In a IP Address it is a combination of some host & network address. It consists of 32 bits of Information.

1 Bit : Means a one digit i.e. 1 or 0.
1 Byte : 8 Bits.

As well,
An IP address is a 32 bit, divided in to 4 sections each of 1 byte.
An IP address can be noted in different methods :-
1. Dotted Decimal
2. Binary
3. Hexa-decimal.
Example :-
IP address : 164.102.146.52
Binary Octet : 244.146.222.64
Hexadecimal : 00A4.0066.0092.0034
32 bit Binary : 10100100.01100110.10010010.00110100
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NETWORK ADDRESSING:

Based upon network size, Number of Hosts, Number of Network the Network has been configured in 5 type of classes. ( A, B, C, D, E )
From smaller Network to a Large scale Network are defined in different classes as HOST & NETWORK each with 1 Byte = 8 Bits.

Range of IP Classes:
A : 0-127 : 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
B : 128- 191 : 10000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
C : 192-223 : 11000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
D : 224-239 : Reserved for Multicast.
E : 240-255 : Used for experiment and Research.

DEFAULT SUBNET MASKS :

A : 255.0.0.0
B : 255.255.0.0
C : 255.255.255.0

A Network can be split in to multiple smaller logical networks.
Network Mask or prefix indicates which bits to compare when making routing decisions.

PRIVATE ADDRESS CLASS :

A : 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
B : 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
C : 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

NETWORK ADDRESS WITH SLASH :

A : 8 bits of Network and 24 bits of hosts. 10.0.0.0/8
B : 16 bits of Network and 16 bits of hosts. 128.196.0.0/16
C : 24 bits of Network and 8 bits of hosts. 192.245.12.0 /24

When You plan for sub-netting, always remember one thing the Power of 2.